If you’re looking for a historical and cultural experience in Cairo, look no further than the Citadel. This fortress on top of a hill offers wonderful views of the city and plenty of opportunities to learn about Egyptian history and culture. Today, visitors can explore the fortified walls, mosques, and palaces of this UNESCO World Heritage Site. There’s no better way to experience the history and culture of Egypt than by exploring the Cairo Citadel.

The History of the Citadel

The Cairo Citadel was built by the Ayyubid dynasty in the 12 centuries on the site of an earlier Fatimid fortification. The Citadel was intended to be both a military stronghold and a seat of government. To that end, it was constructed with two enclosures: the eastern enclosure, which housed the royal palaces and administrative buildings, and the northern enclosure, which contained the military barracks and garrison.

The Ayyubids heavily fortified the Citadel, surrounding it with thick walls and constructing numerous towers and gates. The most notable of these is the Gate of Muhammad Ali, constructed in 1822 and remains one of the most recognizable landmarks in Cairo.

Mamluk and Ottoman Rule

After the fall of the Ayyubid dynasty in 1250, Egypt came under Mamluk rule. The Mamluks continued to use the Cairo Citadel as a seat of government and added several mosques and madrasas to its already extensive complex of buildings. In 1517, Egypt fell to the Ottomans, who also used the Citadel as a government center.

The Cairo Citadel remained under Ottoman control until 1798 when the French Army captured it during Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt. The French soldiers destroyed much of the Citadel before they were forced to retreat by British and Ottoman forces. The British then used the Citadel as a military base during their occupation of Egypt.

Why visit the Citadel?

The Cairo Citadel also offers breathtaking views of the cityscape to its architectural wonders. On a clear day, you can see for miles in every direction. Be sure to bring your camera to capture the perfect shot of Cairo’s skyline. Here are some of the most places to visit

The Al-Gawhara Palace

The Gawhara Palace is located in the Cairo Citadel and consists of many chambers, rooms, halls, and walls decorated with golden ornaments in a baroque style. The palace functioned as a seat for Mohamed Ali, and the structure was a mixture of Ottoman and European styles. The main hall is important because he ruled with the help of religious man. The displays in the palace include royal paintings, furniture, and outfits, and it has a magnificent throne hall with rich decorations.

The Gawhara Palace was built in the early 19th century by Mohamed Ali, the ruler of Egypt then. Mohamed Ali wanted to build a palace that would be a symbol of his power and authority. The throne room was used for ceremonial occasions.

The displays in the Gawhara Palace include royal paintings, furniture, and outfits. The paintings depict scenes from Egyptian history and mythology. Upon entering the palace, guests could use the golden framed mirror. 

This mirror was placed there so guests could take a final look at themselves before entering the main palace for their meeting with the Egyptian leadership. The mirror was an important part of the palace because it ensured that guests were presentable for their meetings palace suffered from fire, and it was again restored.

National Police Museum

A little-known museum with a fascinating collection of police memorabilia is tucked away in the corner of the Cairo Citadel. The Police Museum is housed in a 19th-century building. The museum’s collection includes everything from ancient handcuffs and swords to modern items like police uniforms and fire trucks.

The Police Museum provides a unique glimpse into Egypt’s past, telling the story of the country’s law enforcement history through the displayed artifacts. The earliest pieces in the collection date back to the days of the Pharaohs, when criminals were punished by being publicly humiliated or put to death. There are also sections devoted to more recent history, including the British colonial period and the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. 

One of the most interesting aspects of the Police Museum is its collection of photographs. A collection of photographs that document the history of the police force. One of the most interesting aspects of the collection is the battle of Ismalia in 1951. The photographs show the picture of the officer who took part in the battle and some of the paintings and weapons used in the battle.

The Mosque of Muhammad Ali

It is one of the country’s largest mosques and is considered one of the finest examples of Ottoman architecture in Egypt. The mosque was built between 1830 and 1848 and was commissioned by Muhammad Ali Pasha, the ruler of Egypt at that time.

The mosque was built in the Ottomans style, popular in Egypt during the Ottoman period. The mosque’s exterior is decorated with marble, while the interior is adorned with stained glass and mosaic. The main dome of the mosque is 21 meters high and is flanked by four smaller domes. The prayer area is illuminated by small lamps around the middle of the room, and there are two minibars, one of which is decorated with gilt ornaments.

The Royal carriage museum

The museum offered a rare glimpse into the past when horse-drawn carriages were a common mode of transportation. Inaugurated in 1983, the museum holds a collection of royal carriages from the reign of Khedive Ismail until King Farouk. The collection’s highlight is the carriage used by Khedive Ismail to open the Suez Canal and the Golden State Carriage, presented to Khedive by Napoleon III.

Visitors to the museum can learn about the different types of carriages on display, their history, and how they were used. The museum offers a fascinating look at a bygone era when horse-drawn carriages were an integral part of daily life.


This city offers a lot to do for those who are interested in history and culture. Many museums, mosques, and other historical sites offer a glimpse into the past. The city also has a rich nightlife and is home to many restaurants and bars. Whether you’re looking for a place to learn about history or want to have a good time,