Of all the wonders that survive the ancient world, the pyramids of Giza are indeed the most famous. These massive structures have been the subject of fascination, speculation, and wonder for centuries, and they continue to draw visitors from all over the globe. But what do we know about these iconic monuments? In this article, we’ll look at some basics: when and why they were built, how they’ve fared over the millennia, and what mysteries still surround them. 

How were the pyramids built?

The Pyramids of Giza were constructed approximately 4500 years ago, on the order of three Pharaohs: Khufu, who built the Great Pyramid, Khafre who built the second-largest pyramid, and Menkaure, who erected the smallest of the three.

There are several theories about how the pyramids were built, but the most likely scenario is that they were constructed using a technique known as “leveling.” This method involves workers dragging huge stone blocks up ramps from the sand. As each pyramid level was completed, the workers would move the ramp up to continue construction. Once the pyramid was finished, the ramps would be removed and used to build the next one. 

It’s estimated that it took around 100,000 workers to build a single pyramid, working in shifts around the clock. Construction is thought to have taken 20 years. In addition to the workers who built the pyramid, there would have been many other people involved in quarrying the stone, making tools, and performing other support tasks. 

The Great Pyramid of Giza is thought to have been constructed using around 2.3 million blocks of limestone, each weighing an average of 2.5 tons. The largest blocks weighed up to 80 tons and were cut from a quarry about 500 feet from the pyramid. It’s believed that these massive stones were transported to the construction site.

Who built the pyramids?

These massive structures were built during the reign of the Fourth Dynasty Pharaoh Khufu, also known as Cheops. Though there is still much we do not know about their construction, archaeologists have made significant progress in understanding how these incredible monuments were built. Thanks to careful study of the pyramids and the surrounding archaeological site, we know they were constructed using a series of ramps and pulleys.

The most widely accepted theory is that Ancient Egyptian laborers constructed them during the Old Kingdom period Thousands of workers would have been needed to haul the massive blocks of stone into place, working day and night to complete the project. It is truly a remarkable feat of engineering and a testament to the skill and dedication of the people who built them.

What challenges face the pyramids today?

Today, the pyramids of Giza face several challenges. First and foremost, they are located in a highly populated area, which puts them at risk of further damage from development and tourism. In addition, the pyramids are also struggling with the effects of pollution and acid rain. These factors have caused the limestone walls to erode, leaving the pyramids vulnerable to further deterioration. 

Finally, the pyramids are also at risk from rising sea levels due to climate change. While the Egyptian government has taken some steps to protect these iconic structures, it is clear that more needs to be done to ensure their preservation for future generations.

What was the purpose of the pyramids?

The ancient Egyptians built pyramids as tombs for the pharaohs and their queens. From the Old Kingdom’s beginning to the Middle Kingdom’s end, the pharaohs were buried in pyramids of various shapes and sizes. Pyramids were built for purposes other than burial. Starting in the New Kingdom, some pyramids were used as temples.

In addition to being used as tombs, the pyramids were also used as temples, where priests conducted rituals and offered sacrifices to the Pharaohs’ gods. Offerings and prayers were thought to ensure that the Pharaohs would have a successful afterlife, and archaeological evidence has shown that offering tables and altars were present in several of the chambers inside the pyramids. Therefore, the Pyramids of Giza served both religious and funerary purposes, providing a fascinating glimpse into the beliefs of the ancient Egyptians.

The last reason believed for constructing the Pyramids of Giza was for astronomical purposes. In ancient Egyptian mythology, Orion was associated with Osiris, the god of death and resurrection. It is thought that the three main pyramids at Giza were deliberately positioned to align with certain stars in Orion’s constellation. 

This theory is supported by the fact that the pyramids are oriented almost precisely to the north, which would have allowed the ancient Egyptians to track the movements of Orion through the night sky. Although there is no definitive proof that the Pyramids of Giza were used for astronomical purposes, this theory provides a tantalizing glimpse into the mysteries of one of the ancient world’s most iconic structures.

How have the pyramids been preserved?

The pyramids of Giza are among the most iconic structures in the world, and their preservation is a testament to the skill of the ancient Egyptian architects who designed them. The pyramids were constructed using massive limestone blocks, each weighing several tons. The blocks were cut to precise dimensions and then transported to the construction site, where they were lifted using a ramps and pulleys system. 

Once in place, the blocks were secured with mortar and fitted with incredible precision. The result was an incredibly strong and durable structure, able to withstand the ravages of time. The pyramids of Giza are some of the best-preserved ancient buildings in the world, testimony to the skill of their creators.


The Pyramids of Giza are some of the most famous structures, with good reason. These towering tombs have stood the test of time, remaining largely intact for over four millennia. They continue to inspire curiosity and wonder, serving as a reminder of the grandeur and mystery of Ancient Egypt. If you’re planning a trip to Egypt, be sure to add a visit to see the pyramids for yourself.